Observe the following:
Every little box of the spin field represents one of the two possible states
Si=-1, 1 (white/blue).
The energy is calculated from the formula
<i,j> symbolizes all pairs of nearest neighbours on the lattice.
At infinite temperature the energy per spin (E/N, where N=L2 is the
number of spins) is zero. At zero temperature, all the spins are parallel and
the energy per spin is -2.
You can control the temperature either by typing a (positive) real number
into the temperature field or by adjusting the thermometer by mouse.
The critical temperature of the two dimensional Ising model is
TCrit=2/ln(1+sqrt2) = 2.269 . Initially the temperature is set to
The magnetization is simply the mean of all spins.
At temperatures well above the critical temperatures, the spin arrangement
converges to a
nearly random arrangement, independent of the starting state: "Init cold", "Init
warm", and fluctuates quickly. We say that, above the critical
temperature, there is a single
thermodynamic state and this has zero magnetization.
The spin arrangement
is truly random at infinite temperature.
If you start below the critical temperature with "Init cold" (i.e. all the
Si=-1) you will see that just a few small cluster of blue (i.e.
Si=1) spins appear, and there is a non-zero (negative)
magnetization. If we
had started the simulation with all the Si 1 (blue)
then there would have been
a net positive magnetization. We see that, below the critical temperature,
there are two thermodynamic
states (the "up spin" state with positive magnetization
and the "down spin" state negative magnetization) and
the system stays in one or the other depending on
how the spins are initialized.
If you start below the critical temperature with "Init warm"
then you see that the system initially cannot make up its mind whether to go
into the "up spin" or "down spin" state. Large clusters of each spin form.
Eventually, if you let the simulation run for a long time, one of the states
Which one wins depends on the random thermal fluctuations.
There is equal probability for it to be the "up spin" or "down spin" state.
For temperatures near
the transition temperature, there are large clusters of spins with the same
orientation, which fluctuate only very slowly. This is because the "correlation
length" of an infinitely large system diverges at the critical point.
This applet is copied with only cosmetic changes from a program by